Country Turkey Region East Black Sea Subregion Trabzon Government • Electoral district Trabzon Area • Total 6,685 km2 (2,581 sq mi) Population (2010) • Total 779,379 • Density 120/km2 (300/sq mi) Area code(s) 0462 Vehicle registration 61
Sports & nature
Football is the most popular sport in Trabzon. The city's top sports club, Trabzonspor, was until 2010 the only Turkish football club in Anatolia to win the Süper Lig (six times), which was previously (until Trabzonspor's first championship title in the 1975–76 season) won only by the "Big Three" clubs of Istanbul, namely Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe and Beşiktaş. Due to Trabzonspor's success, the decades-old term "Big Three" which defined the most successful football clubs in Turkey had to be modified into the "Big Four". Trabzonspor was the champion of the season 2010-11.
Trabzonspor is also one of the most successful Turkish clubs in the European Cups, managing to beat numerous prominent teams such as Barcelona, Inter, Liverpool, Aston Villa and Olympique Lyonnais. Renowned former players of Trabzonspor include Şenol Güneş, Lars Olsen and Shota Arveladze.
Trabzon hosted the First Edition of the Black Sea Games in July 2007 and the 2011 European Youth Summer Olympic Festival.
Trabzon Province has a total area of 4,685 square kilometres (1,809 sq mi) and is bordered by the provinces of Rize, Giresun and Gümüşhane. The total area is 22.4% plateau and 77.6% hills. The Pontic Mountains pass through the Trabzon Province.
Trabzon used to be an important reference point for navigators in the Black Sea during harsh weather conditions. The popular expression "perdere la Trebisonda" (losing Trebizond) is still commonly used in the Italian language to describe situations in which the sense of direction is lost. The Italian maritime republics such as Venice and in particular Genoa were active in the Black Sea trade for centuries.
Trabzon has four lakes, Uzungöl, Çakırgöl, Sera and Haldizen Lakes. There are several streams, but no rivers in Trabzon.
Trabzon has a climate typical of the Black Sea region with plentiful precipitation. Under the Köppen climate classification, it has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa) Summers are warm and humid, and the average maximum temperature is around 26.7 °C (80 °F) in August. Winters are cool and damp, and the lowest average minimum temperature is around 5 °C (41 °F) in January. Trabzon's summers are warmer than oceanic classifications, but the narrow fluctuations in temperature renders a significant influence from the sea. As with other major cities on the Black Sea coast of Turkey, Trabzon is situated right on the waterfront, thus allowing for the additional 1-2 degrees Celsius enough to surpass the threshold to be classified as subtropical. In comparison, only 1 or 2 percent of the province is classified as subtropical, the majority being oceanic (Köppen: Cfb) followed by humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfb), due to the immediate elevation increase starting from the coast, a typical characteristic of the Black Sea coast of Turkey. Trabzon's weather station also sees tendencies of a mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa), but with only one month below 40 mm rainfall in summer it just fails to qualify.
Precipitation is heaviest in autumn and winter, with a marked reduction in the summer months, a microclimatic condition of the city center compared to the rest of the region. Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two, and it can be heavy once it snows.
The water temperature, like in the rest of the Black Sea coast of Turkey, is always cool and fluctuates between 8 °C (46 °F) and 20 °C (68 °F) throughout the year.
Nightlife infoThere are only a few restaurants that serve alcohol in the city center. Among them being Bordo Mavi and Trabzon Şehir Kulübü Restaurant in Nemlioğlu Cemal Sokak (sidestreet of Uzun Sokak). Other options are a bit further from the center, between Trabzon and Akcaabat, such as Tirvana, Lazeli or Marina. A lot of the more traditional restaurants offer non-alcoholic cocktails. Luckily, because Trabzon is a student city, there is still quite a broad choice between music venues compared to other Turkish cities.
Coffee & tea
For those longing for real (European-style) coffee, Keyif Coffee & Tea Store has a huge selection of Tea (listing them by area and even Tea Estate) and first rate Cappachino (3 TL). They are hidden within the shopping complex Canbakkal İş Merkezi, a few blocks to the west of Atatürk Alani square. Kahve Durağı and Edward's Coffee offer many kinds of coffee and cakes. Cinema-themed sineK, next to Royal Cinema also offers western (and Turkish) coffee and tea. It is a kind of hip place where young Trabzonites come to play games after going to the movies. You might need to make reservations (like for most popular or trendy restaurants in the city). Time's Coffee Restaurant on Kahramanmaraş Cad. offers coffee and more with a rooftop view of the city. It is located on the 7th floor of the Silk Road Business Center.
1 Boztepe tea garden. Watch the sun set from the hill overlooking the city.
2 Ganita tea garden. The tea garden right next to the old Genoese fortress Leonkastron.
3 Vokal Sanat Kitap ve Kafe. Book store annex cafe.
4 Reis'in Yeri. Grill house and tea garden just to the west of Ganita tea garden, with a view on the old Genoese fortress Leonkastron. You might be able to get a beer here
5 Şişman Efes Pub. Centrally located, one part is men-only, the other is mixed.
6 BARikat rock bar. Rooftop rock bar.
7 Sahne bar. Live music bar.
8 Garage Disco Bar. Disco just east of Meydan, in the hotel area.
9 Altmış Bir'a (61'a). Football pub of Trabzonspor fans.
10 Süleyman Bar. This bar is located at Trabzon Forum shopping mall.
11 Mey bar. Live music and DJs.
12 Cıngıl Bar. Brown cafe.
13 Retto. Nightclub. You need to make reservations at 0543 647 0011
14 Biravoo Pub. No frills interior, but unlike most bars in Trabzon it has a kitchen
Culture and history infoTrabzon was founded around 756 BC by Greek colonists from Sinope, who hailed from Miletus. They called their new colony Trapezous, ancient Greek for "table", due to the topography of the central hill, squeezed between two rivers with steep cliffs on both sides. Trabzon has been a major trade centre through history—for long, it was a main port-of-call on one of the main routes between Europe and Persia and beyond, which involved taking a ship across the Black Sea from Romania (and later Constantinople). After the Roman conquest, the city was given a new harbor and a paved road towards Persia. The road fostered trade and cultural exchange, and was used for attacks on the Persian Empire during the Roman and Byzantine periods. After a Turkmen attack on the city was repelled by a local force in the 1080s, the city broke relations with the Byzantine Empire and acted as an independent state. The Mongol sack of Baghdad diverted more trade caravans from Tabriz to Trabzon and the city grew in wealth from the taxes it could impose on trade between Europe, Persia and China. The city traded intensely with Genoa and to a lesser extent with Venice during the early renaissance, with some cultural influences going both ways. During this era, Trabzon was visited by many travellers, Marco Polo being among them.
In medieval times, the city served as the capital of the Empire of Trebizond ruled by the Komnenos family, which also provided several emperors to the Byzantine throne in Constantinople. The longest surviving rump Byzantine state, Trabzon was captured by the Ottoman Turks in 1461, almost a decade after the fall of Constantinople.
During the 18th and 19th centuries Europeans wishing to explore the Caucasus, Iran and the eastern domains of the Ottoman Empire used Trabzon as a point of departure or return. The first world war left deep scars in the city; it lost many of its young male Muslims at the battle of Sarıkamış in 1914, its entire Armenian population in the genocide of 1915, and most of its Greek inhabitants during the population exchange of 1923. Closed borders with the Soviet Union meant that the city could only recover culturally and economically in the 1970s. Trabzon today is a city under reconstruction, but offers many historical, cultural and natural sights. The city constitutes the largest urban metropolitan region of Turkey's Black Sea coast, with nearly 1 million inhabitants. Trabzon functions as the cultural capital of the Turkish Black Sea coast, and its inhabitants are very proud of their city and region.
Trabzon has just returned on the tourist radar, and the city is still investing in tourist infrastructure. Like a few other Turkish cities like Istanbul and Izmir, Trabzon is culturally located somewhat in between Anatolia and Eastern Europe. In the case of Trabzon this is due to the Pontic Mountains, which used to form a cultural barrier. Coming from the Anatolian heartland, it feels like one is entering Europe, while coming from the Caucasus, Trabzon comes across as the first city with Middle-Eastern influences. Tourists who visit Trabzon come mostly from a few countries: nearby Georgia, Russia, the Netherlands, Germany, Greece, Azerbaijan and the Gulf states.